Basic cellular functions and biology

Cardiac muscle cells control contractions of heart by generating electrical impulses and smooth muscle cells control subconscious movements of tissues such as blood vessels, the uterus, and the stomach.

The reactions shown below happen twice for each glucose molecule since a glucose splits into two three-carbon molecules, both of which will eventually proceed through the pathway.

They are long and thick thread-like appendages, protein in nature. Many students in this area will choose to go on to graduate school. A response is often expressed by motion; for example, the leaves of a plant turning toward the sun phototropismand chemotaxis.

Normal functions in cells and tissues of organisms produce waste such as urine and dead cells. Easy and enjoyable to read, the book introduces topics such as genetics, cells, evolution, basic biochemistry, the broad categories of organisms, plants, animals, and taxonomy. This area is particularly designed for those who plan to pursue a career in research in molecular or cell biology or in related areas such as biochemistry, genetics, microbiology, developmental biology, human medicine, or veterinary medicine.

In meiosis, the DNA is replicated only once, while the cell divides twice. The ribosome is a large complex of RNA and protein molecules. The DHAP is converted into glyceraldephosphate by an enzyme called triose phosphate isomerase. In effect, carbon dioxide accepts and bonds with hydrogen, forming carbohydrates Cn[H2O]n.

Keratin also makes hair and nails. Courses offered at other locations In addition to biological science courses taught on campus, students may take courses at various remote locations and arrange to have the credits count toward the advanced courses required in the biology major.

The useful energy, or free energymay be defined as energy capable of doing work under isothermal conditions conditions in which no temperature differential exists ; free energy is associated with any chemical change.

Students with special interests and aptitudes should consider combining biology with a minor or a second major in another subject, such as chemistry, environmental studies, journalism, mathematics, music, statistics, or many other subjects offered by the university.

They are most often considered as just replicators rather than forms of life. Plasma membrane The plasma membrane is a porous membrane that surrounds an animal cell. There is little experimental data defining what the first self-replicating forms were.

Blood cells Blood cells can be split into red and white blood cells. Undergraduate research--Students who have interests in biological research are encouraged to become involved in the research projects of faculty members on campus. Gaia hypothesis The idea that the Earth is alive is found in philosophy and religion, but the first scientific discussion of it was by the Scottish scientist James Hutton.

Protein synthesis Main article: A closely related approach to CSB and systems biology called relational biology is concerned mainly with understanding life processes in terms of the most important relations, and categories of such relations among the essential functional components of organisms; for multicellular organisms, this has been defined as "categorical biology", or a model representation of organisms as a category theory of biological relations, as well as an algebraic topology of the functional organization of living organisms in terms of their dynamic, complex networks of metabolic, genetic, and epigenetic processes and signaling pathways.

The faculties of the Department of Ecology, Evolution, and Organismal Biology and the Department of Genetics, Development, and Cell Biology jointly offer the undergraduate biology major. In plants, all but two of the steps in the process that converts carbon dioxide to carbohydrates are the same as those steps that synthesize sugars from simpler starting materials in animals, fungi, and bacteria.

This area is particularly designed for those who plan to pursue a career in research in molecular or cell biology or in related areas such as biochemistry, genetics, microbiology, developmental biology, human medicine, or veterinary medicine.

This step is catalyzed by the enzyme phosphofructokinase, which can be regulated to speed up or slow down the glycolysis pathway. In animals, the plasma membrane is the outer boundary of the cell, while in plants and prokaryotes it is usually covered by a cell wall.

One systemic definition of life is that living things are self-organizing and autopoietic self-producing. There was an error submitting your subscription. Theodor Schwann and Matthias Jakob Schleiden elucidate the principle that plants and animals are made of cells, concluding that cells are a common unit of structure and development, and thus founding the cell theory.

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The Biology major offers a rich variety of coursework addressing most of the areas of biology. Protein synthesis generally consists of two major steps: Fungal cells typically have lysosomes and centrosomes but very few species have flagella. It is possible because respiration provides excess energy for organisms to use to grow.

Nerve cells Nerve cells, also called neurons, are the main cells of the nervous system. The cell wall acts to protect the cell mechanically and chemically from its environment, and is an additional layer of protection to the cell membrane. Cell metabolism is the process by which individual cells process nutrient molecules.

Play a game of Kahoot! here. Kahoot! is a free game-based learning platform that makes it fun to learn – any subject, in any language, on any device, for all ages! Biology. Explore the science of life by learning about the systems and structures that make up the organisms of our world.

1. INTRODUCTION - OVERVIEW - Biology as a science deals with the origin, history, process, and physical characteristics, of plants and animals: it includes botany, and zoology.

A study of biology includes the study of the chemical basis of living organisms, related sciences include microbiology and organic chemistry. All living organisms on Earth are divided into main concept of cell theory is that cells are the basic structural unit for all organisms.

Cells are small compartments that hold the biological equipment necessary to keep an organism alive and successful. Metabolism: Metabolism, the sum of chemical reactions that take place in living cells, providing energy for life processes and the synthesis of cellular material.

Living organisms are unique in that they extract energy from their environments via hundreds of coordinated, multistep, enzyme-mediated reactions. Animal cells.

Cell Membranes

As with all of Earth’s organisms, animals are built from microscopic structures called cells. Cells are the basic unit of life and these microscopic structures work together and perform all the necessary functions to keep an animal alive.

Basic cellular functions and biology
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Biochemistry | Fundamentals of Biology | Biology | MIT OpenCourseWare